Also Known As
阿尔茨海默生物标志物
正式名称
β淀粉样蛋白42肽和Tau蛋白
本文最后审核 时间
本文 最后修改 时间 2018/01/07.
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为何检测?

  帮助鉴别阿尔茨海默病和其他类型痴呆。

何时检测?

  通常用于科研,最典型的是用于阿尔茨海默病引起的痴呆患者,并且同时进行认知和想象能力检测。

何种样本?

  腰椎穿刺采集脑脊液。

是否需要做试验前准备?

        医生会将试验准备的要求告知您.

检测什么?

  淀粉样蛋白42肽(Aβ42)和Tau蛋白是两种与神经原纤维缠结发育(阻塞神经细胞的扭曲的蛋白碎片)以及与阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者中的脑部发现的老年斑相关的蛋白。Tau蛋白结构异常,是大脑中的磷蛋白,其结构可导致神经原纤维缠结,同时,来源于-淀粉样前蛋白的Aβ42也与老年斑的产生有关。但是,神经原纤维缠结和老年斑的产生是老年人正常的生理现象,只是在AD患者中数量远远高于非AD患者。-淀粉样前蛋白(包括Aβ42)和tau蛋白在AD发病进程中的作用仍然不明确,但这是当前研究的热点。研究人员正在评估脑脊液中这两种蛋白在诊断和监测AD时可能起到的作用。

测试样本如何采集?

  脑脊液标本通过腰椎穿刺采集。通常需要在医院或诊所内才能进行采集。

是否需要进行任何试验前准备以保证样本的质量?

         医生会将试验准备的要求告知您。这个试验不是血液检测,而是对脑脊液进行检查。腰椎穿刺通常应在医院内进行。

Accordion Title
常见问题
  • 有何用途?

      Tau蛋白和Aβ42是一种辅助实验,有助于诊断阿尔茨海默病。

      如果患者出现痴呆症状,例如记忆丧失,习惯改变,或者是自理能力下降,医生就应该彻查病因,包括评判记忆力的认知实验,如果可能的话还可以进行大脑扫描,观察是否有异常。Tau蛋白和Aβ42不是AD患者当前最常用的鉴定方法。但是,脑脊液中这两种蛋白出现异常有助于鉴别诊断AD和其他痴呆性疾病。

  • 何时检测?

      通常,Tau蛋白和Aβ42最初只用于科研,与认知实验和脑扫描联合检查。有些医生会将这种检查用于临床,但是尚缺乏解释实验结果的信息。

  • 试验结果的含义?

      具有痴呆症状的患者,出现低Aβ42伴随高Tau蛋白表示很可能患有阿尔茨海默病。但不是意味该患者一定患有AD。如果患者没有出现这两种蛋白水平异常,则很有可能是由于非AD原因引起的痴呆。

  • 还有什么我需要了解的吗?

      Tau蛋白和Aβ42不能用于诊断是否患有阿尔茨海默病,需要与其他实验、患者临床症状,并且结合家族史才能诊断AD。

      调查AD患者后发现,低Aβ42伴随高Tau蛋白与阿尔茨海默病的发病原因或发病年龄无关。

  • 如何明确诊断阿尔茨海默病?

      当前,阿尔茨海默病主要是依靠认知能力的改变以及排除其他会导致这些改变的病因后诊断的。只有在患者过世后,显微镜下观察患者大脑组织的改变才能明确诊断。显微镜检查包括查找脑部老年斑和神经原纤维缠结的数量。由于老年斑和神经原纤维缠结在普通老年人中也存在,所以样本必须和相同年龄正常(非AD)脑组织比较。如果您的医生诊断您患有阿尔茨海默病,既可以指有伴随阿尔茨海默病的可能(意味着可能是另一种病因,例如中风),也可以指就是阿尔茨海默病(意味着他们已经排除了许多其他的可能,并且您也出现了相关症状。有时候,其他指征例如脑部扫描特征性改变或者脑脊液中Aβ42低Tau蛋白高也有助于诊断。)

  • 我能否用血液检测来代替CSF?

    这个项目不可以。研究表明:淀粉样蛋白42肽和Tau蛋白的血液检测结果,并不能真正反应患者的脑内变化。

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